Glossary

Epidemic: Cases of a disease or health-related events that have behaviors clearly above the normal expectation in a community or region, and period.WHO

Epidemic areas: A widespread outbreak of a disease in a large number of people in a particular period, either in a particular area or in a specific population group.CDC

Epidemic threshold: Critical number or density of susceptible hosts required for an epidemic to occur.  The epidemic threshold is used to confirm the occurrence of an epidemic to intensify appropriate control measures.WHO

Equity: Fundamental principle focused on the reduction of inequalities, and on the recognition, inclusion and equality of opportunities and conditions for all people in essential areas of dignity, rights, and justice.OXFORD

Essential health services: Care services to improve, maintain, or restore the health of people who should be part of universal health coverage. It addresses the most important causes of illness and death. It covers the whole range of health services, from promotion to prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, and palliative care. The provision of these services should protect individuals and families from becoming impoverished by the cost of caring for their health problems.WHO

Essential medicines: Drugs that help meet priority health needs. It must be ensured that they are safe, scientifically proven, quality, and economically affordable.WHO

European Commission Directorate-General for Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection (DG ECHO): Directorate-General for Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection of the Commission of the European Union for the coordination and response to humanitarian disasters or emergencies in countries inside and outside Europe.EU

Eutrophication: Main form of water pollution in lakes, ponds, rivers, and reservoirs, caused by excess nutrients in the water, mainly nitrogen and phosphorus, mostly from human activity.NOAA

Evaluation of humanitarian action: Systematic and impartial review of humanitarian action aimed at drawing lessons for improved policy and practices, and enhanced accountability.ALNAP

Excess mortality: Higher than expected number of deaths in humanitarian crises. Excess mortality is mortality attributable to crisis conditions.WHO